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#!/usr/bin/env  python
__license__   = 'GPL v3'
__copyright__ = '2008, Kovid Goyal kovid@kovidgoyal.net'
__docformat__ = 'restructuredtext en'

lxml based OPF parser.

import re, sys, unittest, functools, os, mimetypes, uuid, glob, cStringIO
from urllib import unquote
from urlparse import urlparse

from lxml import etree

from calibre.ebooks.chardet import xml_to_unicode
from calibre.constants import __appname__, __version__, filesystem_encoding
from calibre.ebooks.metadata.toc import TOC
from calibre.ebooks.metadata import MetaInformation, string_to_authors
from calibre.utils.date import parse_date, isoformat

00023 class Resource(object):
    Represents a resource (usually a file on the filesystem or a URL pointing
    to the web. Such resources are commonly referred to in OPF files.

    They have the interface:


    def __init__(self, href_or_path, basedir=os.getcwd(), is_path=True):
        self.orig = href_or_path
        self._href = None
        self._basedir = basedir
        self.path = None
        self.fragment = ''
            self.mime_type = mimetypes.guess_type(href_or_path)[0]
            self.mime_type = None
        if self.mime_type is None:
            self.mime_type = 'application/octet-stream'
        if is_path:
            path = href_or_path
            if not os.path.isabs(path):
                path = os.path.abspath(os.path.join(basedir, path))
            if isinstance(path, str):
                path = path.decode(sys.getfilesystemencoding())
            self.path = path
            href_or_path = href_or_path
            url = urlparse(href_or_path)
            if url[0] not in ('', 'file'):
                self._href = href_or_path
                pc = url[2]
                if isinstance(pc, unicode):
                    pc = pc.encode('utf-8')
                pc = pc.decode('utf-8')
                self.path = os.path.abspath(os.path.join(basedir, pc.replace('/', os.sep)))
                self.fragment = url[-1]

00068     def href(self, basedir=None):
        Return a URL pointing to this resource. If it is a file on the filesystem
        the URL is relative to `basedir`.

        `basedir`: If None, the basedir of this resource is used (see :method:`set_basedir`).
        If this resource has no basedir, then the current working directory is used as the basedir.
        if basedir is None:
            if self._basedir:
                basedir = self._basedir
                basedir = os.getcwd()
        if self.path is None:
            return self._href
        f = self.fragment.encode('utf-8') if isinstance(self.fragment, unicode) else self.fragment
        frag = '#'+f if self.fragment else ''
        if self.path == basedir:
            return ''+frag
            rpath = os.path.relpath(self.path, basedir)
        except ValueError: # On windows path and basedir could be on different drives
            rpath = self.path
        if isinstance(rpath, unicode):
            rpath = rpath.encode('utf-8')
        return rpath.replace(os.sep, '/')+frag

    def set_basedir(self, path):
        self._basedir = path

    def basedir(self):
        return self._basedir

    def __repr__(self):
        return 'Resource(%s, %s)'%(repr(self.path), repr(self.href()))

class ResourceCollection(object):

    def __init__(self):
        self._resources = []

    def __iter__(self):
        for r in self._resources:
            yield r

    def __len__(self):
        return len(self._resources)

    def __getitem__(self, index):
        return self._resources[index]

    def __bool__(self):
        return len(self._resources) > 0

    def __str__(self):
        resources = map(repr, self)
        return '[%s]'%', '.join(resources)

    def __repr__(self):
        return str(self)

    def append(self, resource):
        if not isinstance(resource, Resource):
            raise ValueError('Can only append objects of type Resource')

    def remove(self, resource):

    def replace(self, start, end, items):
        'Same as list[start:end] = items'
        self._resources[start:end] = items

    def from_directory_contents(top, topdown=True):
        collection = ResourceCollection()
        for spec in os.walk(top, topdown=topdown):
            path = os.path.abspath(os.path.join(spec[0], spec[1]))
            res = Resource.from_path(path)
        return collection

    def set_basedir(self, path):
        for res in self:

class ManifestItem(Resource):

    def from_opf_manifest_item(item, basedir):
        href = item.get('href', None)
        if href:
            res = ManifestItem(href, basedir=basedir, is_path=True)
            mt = item.get('media-type', '').strip()
            if mt:
                res.mime_type = mt
            return res

    def media_type(self):
        def fget(self):
            return self.mime_type
        def fset(self, val):
            self.mime_type = val
        return property(fget=fget, fset=fset)

    def __unicode__(self):
        return u'<item id="%s" href="%s" media-type="%s" />'%(self.id, self.href(), self.media_type)

    def __str__(self):
        return unicode(self).encode('utf-8')

    def __repr__(self):
        return unicode(self)

    def __getitem__(self, index):
        if index == 0:
            return self.href()
        if index == 1:
            return self.media_type
        raise IndexError('%d out of bounds.'%index)

class Manifest(ResourceCollection):

    def from_opf_manifest_element(items, dir):
        m = Manifest()
        for item in items:
                m.append(ManifestItem.from_opf_manifest_item(item, dir))
                id = item.get('id', '')
                if not id:
                    id = 'id%d'%m.next_id
                m[-1].id = id
                m.next_id += 1
            except ValueError:
        return m

    def from_paths(entries):
        `entries`: List of (path, mime-type) If mime-type is None it is autodetected
        m = Manifest()
        for path, mt in entries:
            mi = ManifestItem(path, is_path=True)
            if mt:
                mi.mime_type = mt
            mi.id = 'id%d'%m.next_id
            m.next_id += 1
        return m

    def add_item(self, path, mime_type=None):
        mi = ManifestItem(path, is_path=True)
        if mime_type:
            mi.mime_type = mime_type
        mi.id = 'id%d'%self.next_id
        self.next_id += 1
        return mi.id

    def __init__(self):
        self.next_id = 1

    def item(self, id):
        for i in self:
            if i.id == id:
                return i

    def id_for_path(self, path):
        path = os.path.normpath(os.path.abspath(path))
        for i in self:
            if i.path and os.path.normpath(i.path) == path:
                return i.id

    def path_for_id(self, id):
        for i in self:
            if i.id == id:
                return i.path

    def type_for_id(self, id):
        for i in self:
            if i.id == id:
                return i.mime_type

class Spine(ResourceCollection):

    class Item(Resource):

        def __init__(self, idfunc, *args, **kwargs):
            Resource.__init__(self, *args, **kwargs)
            self.is_linear = True
            self.id = idfunc(self.path)
            self.idref = None

        def __repr__(self):
            return 'Spine.Item(path=%r, id=%s, is_linear=%s)' % \
                    (self.path, self.id, self.is_linear)

    def from_opf_spine_element(itemrefs, manifest):
        s = Spine(manifest)
        for itemref in itemrefs:
            idref = itemref.get('idref', None)
            if idref is not None:
                path = s.manifest.path_for_id(idref)
                if path:
                    r = Spine.Item(lambda x:idref, path, is_path=True)
                    r.is_linear = itemref.get('linear', 'yes') == 'yes'
                    r.idref = idref
        return s

    def from_paths(paths, manifest):
        s = Spine(manifest)
        for path in paths:
                s.append(Spine.Item(s.manifest.id_for_path, path, is_path=True))
        return s

    def __init__(self, manifest):
        self.manifest = manifest

    def replace(self, start, end, ids):
        Replace the items between start (inclusive) and end (not inclusive) with
        with the items identified by ids. ids can be a list of any length.
        items = []
        for id in ids:
            path = self.manifest.path_for_id(id)
            if path is None:
                raise ValueError('id %s not in manifest')
            items.append(Spine.Item(lambda x: id, path, is_path=True))
        ResourceCollection.replace(start, end, items)

    def linear_items(self):
        for r in self:
            if r.is_linear:
                yield r.path

    def nonlinear_items(self):
        for r in self:
            if not r.is_linear:
                yield r.path

    def items(self):
        for i in self:
            yield i.path

class Guide(ResourceCollection):

    class Reference(Resource):

        def from_opf_resource_item(ref, basedir):
            title, href, type = ref.get('title', ''), ref.get('href'), ref.get('type')
            res = Guide.Reference(href, basedir, is_path=True)
            res.title = title
            res.type = type
            return res

        def __repr__(self):
            ans = '<reference type="%s" href="%s" '%(self.type, self.href())
            if self.title:
                ans += 'title="%s" '%self.title
            return ans + '/>'

    def from_opf_guide(references, base_dir=os.getcwdu()):
        coll = Guide()
        for ref in references:
                ref = Guide.Reference.from_opf_resource_item(ref, base_dir)
        return coll

    def set_cover(self, path):
        map(self.remove, [i for i in self if 'cover' in i.type.lower()])
        for type in ('cover', 'other.ms-coverimage-standard', 'other.ms-coverimage'):
            self.append(Guide.Reference(path, is_path=True))
            self[-1].type = type
            self[-1].title = ''

class MetadataField(object):

    def __init__(self, name, is_dc=True, formatter=None, none_is=None):
        self.name      = name
        self.is_dc     = is_dc
        self.formatter = formatter
        self.none_is   = none_is

    def __real_get__(self, obj, type=None):
        ans = obj.get_metadata_element(self.name)
        if ans is None:
            return None
        ans = obj.get_text(ans)
        if ans is None:
            return ans
        if self.formatter is not None:
                ans = self.formatter(ans)
                return None
        if hasattr(ans, 'strip'):
            ans = ans.strip()
        return ans

    def __get__(self, obj, type=None):
        ans = self.__real_get__(obj, type)
        if ans is None:
            ans = self.none_is
        return ans

    def __set__(self, obj, val):
        elem = obj.get_metadata_element(self.name)
        if val is None:
            if elem is not None:
        if elem is None:
            elem = obj.create_metadata_element(self.name, is_dc=self.is_dc)
        obj.set_text(elem, unicode(val))

class OPF(object):
    MIMETYPE         = 'application/oebps-package+xml'
    PARSER           = etree.XMLParser(recover=True)
    NAMESPACES       = {
                        None  : "http://www.idpf.org/2007/opf",
                        'dc'  : "http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/",
                        'opf' : "http://www.idpf.org/2007/opf",
    META             = '{%s}meta' % NAMESPACES['opf']
    xpn = NAMESPACES.copy()
    xpn['re'] = 'http://exslt.org/regular-expressions'
    XPath = functools.partial(etree.XPath, namespaces=xpn)
    CONTENT          = XPath('self::*[re:match(name(), "meta$", "i")]/@content')
    TEXT             = XPath('string()')

    metadata_path   = XPath('descendant::*[re:match(name(), "metadata", "i")]')
    metadata_elem_path = XPath('descendant::*[re:match(name(), concat($name, "$"), "i") or (re:match(name(), "meta$", "i") and re:match(@name, concat("^calibre:", $name, "$"), "i"))]')
    title_path      = XPath('descendant::*[re:match(name(), "title", "i")]')
    authors_path    = XPath('descendant::*[re:match(name(), "creator", "i") and (@role="aut" or @opf:role="aut" or (not(@role) and not(@opf:role)))]')
    bkp_path        = XPath('descendant::*[re:match(name(), "contributor", "i") and (@role="bkp" or @opf:role="bkp")]')
    tags_path       = XPath('descendant::*[re:match(name(), "subject", "i")]')
    isbn_path       = XPath('descendant::*[re:match(name(), "identifier", "i") and '+
                            '(re:match(@scheme, "isbn", "i") or re:match(@opf:scheme, "isbn", "i"))]')
    raster_cover_path = XPath('descendant::*[re:match(name(), "meta", "i") and ' +
            're:match(@name, "cover", "i") and @content]')
    identifier_path = XPath('descendant::*[re:match(name(), "identifier", "i")]')
    application_id_path = XPath('descendant::*[re:match(name(), "identifier", "i") and '+
                            '(re:match(@opf:scheme, "calibre|libprs500", "i") or re:match(@scheme, "calibre|libprs500", "i"))]')
    uuid_id_path    = XPath('descendant::*[re:match(name(), "identifier", "i") and '+
                            '(re:match(@opf:scheme, "uuid", "i") or re:match(@scheme, "uuid", "i"))]')

    manifest_path   = XPath('descendant::*[re:match(name(), "manifest", "i")]/*[re:match(name(), "item", "i")]')
    manifest_ppath  = XPath('descendant::*[re:match(name(), "manifest", "i")]')
    spine_path      = XPath('descendant::*[re:match(name(), "spine", "i")]/*[re:match(name(), "itemref", "i")]')
    guide_path      = XPath('descendant::*[re:match(name(), "guide", "i")]/*[re:match(name(), "reference", "i")]')

    title           = MetadataField('title', formatter=lambda x: re.sub(r'\s+', ' ', x))
    title_sort      = MetadataField('title_sort', formatter=lambda x:
                        re.sub(r'\s+', ' ', x), is_dc=False)
    publisher       = MetadataField('publisher')
    language        = MetadataField('language')
    comments        = MetadataField('description')
    category        = MetadataField('type')
    rights          = MetadataField('rights')
    series          = MetadataField('series', is_dc=False)
    series_index    = MetadataField('series_index', is_dc=False, formatter=float, none_is=1)
    rating          = MetadataField('rating', is_dc=False, formatter=int)
    pubdate         = MetadataField('date', formatter=parse_date)
    publication_type = MetadataField('publication_type', is_dc=False)
    timestamp       = MetadataField('timestamp', is_dc=False,

    def __init__(self, stream, basedir=os.getcwdu(), unquote_urls=True,
        if not hasattr(stream, 'read'):
            stream = open(stream, 'rb')
        raw = stream.read()
        if not raw:
            raise ValueError('Empty file: '+getattr(stream, 'name', 'stream'))
        self.basedir  = self.base_dir = basedir
        self.path_to_html_toc = self.html_toc_fragment = None
        raw, self.encoding = xml_to_unicode(raw, strip_encoding_pats=True,
                resolve_entities=True, assume_utf8=True)
        raw = raw[raw.find('<'):]
        self.root     = etree.fromstring(raw, self.PARSER)
        self.metadata = self.metadata_path(self.root)
        if not self.metadata:
            raise ValueError('Malformed OPF file: No <metadata> element')
        self.metadata      = self.metadata[0]
        if unquote_urls:
        self.manifest = Manifest()
        m = self.manifest_path(self.root)
        if m:
            self.manifest = Manifest.from_opf_manifest_element(m, basedir)
        self.spine = None
        s = self.spine_path(self.root)
        if populate_spine and s:
            self.spine = Spine.from_opf_spine_element(s, self.manifest)
        self.guide = None
        guide = self.guide_path(self.root)
        self.guide = Guide.from_opf_guide(guide, basedir) if guide else None
        self.cover_data = (None, None)

    def find_toc(self):
        self.toc = None
            spine = self.XPath('descendant::*[re:match(name(), "spine", "i")]')(self.root)
            toc = None
            if spine:
                spine = spine[0]
                toc = spine.get('toc', None)
            if toc is None and self.guide:
                for item in self.guide:
                    if item.type and item.type.lower() == 'toc':
                        toc = item.path
            if toc is None:
                for item in self.manifest:
                    if 'toc' in item.href().lower():
                        toc = item.path

            if toc is None: return
            self.toc = TOC(base_path=self.base_dir)
            is_ncx = getattr(self, 'manifest', None) is not None and \
                     self.manifest.type_for_id(toc) is not None and \
                     'dtbncx' in self.manifest.type_for_id(toc)
            if is_ncx or toc.lower() in ('ncx', 'ncxtoc'):
                path = self.manifest.path_for_id(toc)
                if path:
                    f = glob.glob(os.path.join(self.base_dir, '*.ncx'))
                    if f:
                self.path_to_html_toc, self.html_toc_fragment = \
                    toc.partition('#')[0], toc.partition('#')[-1]
                if not os.access(self.path_to_html_toc, os.R_OK) or \
                        not os.path.isfile(self.path_to_html_toc):
                    self.path_to_html_toc = None

    def get_text(self, elem):
        return u''.join(self.CONTENT(elem) or self.TEXT(elem))

    def set_text(self, elem, content):
        if elem.tag == self.META:
            elem.attrib['content'] = content
            elem.text = content

    def itermanifest(self):
        return self.manifest_path(self.root)

    def create_manifest_item(self, href, media_type):
        ids = [i.get('id', None) for i in self.itermanifest()]
        id = None
        for c in xrange(1, sys.maxint):
            id = 'id%d'%c
            if id not in ids:
        if not media_type:
            media_type = 'application/xhtml+xml'
        ans = etree.Element('{%s}item'%self.NAMESPACES['opf'],
                             attrib={'id':id, 'href':href, 'media-type':media_type})
        ans.tail = '\n\t\t'
        return ans

    def replace_manifest_item(self, item, items):
        items = [self.create_manifest_item(*i) for i in items]
        for i, item2 in enumerate(items):
            item2.set('id', item.get('id')+'.%d'%(i+1))
        manifest = item.getparent()
        index = manifest.index(item)
        manifest[index:index+1] = items
        return [i.get('id') for i in items]

    def add_path_to_manifest(self, path, media_type):
        has_path = False
        path = os.path.abspath(path)
        for i in self.itermanifest():
            xpath = os.path.join(self.base_dir, *(i.get('href', '').split('/')))
            if os.path.abspath(xpath) == path:
                has_path = True
        if not has_path:
            href = os.path.relpath(path, self.base_dir).replace(os.sep, '/')
            item = self.create_manifest_item(href, media_type)
            manifest = self.manifest_ppath(self.root)[0]

    def iterspine(self):
        return self.spine_path(self.root)

    def spine_items(self):
        for item in self.iterspine():
            idref = item.get('idref', '')
            for x in self.itermanifest():
                if x.get('id', None) == idref:
                    yield x.get('href', '')

    def first_spine_item(self):
        items = self.iterspine()
        if not items:
            return None
        idref = items[0].get('idref', '')
        for x in self.itermanifest():
            if x.get('id', None) == idref:
                return x.get('href', None)

    def create_spine_item(self, idref):
        ans = etree.Element('{%s}itemref'%self.NAMESPACES['opf'], idref=idref)
        ans.tail = '\n\t\t'
        return ans

    def replace_spine_items_by_idref(self, idref, new_idrefs):
        items = list(map(self.create_spine_item, new_idrefs))
        spine = self.XPath('/opf:package/*[re:match(name(), "spine", "i")]')(self.root)[0]
        old = [i for i in self.iterspine() if i.get('idref', None) == idref]
        for x in old:
            i = spine.index(x)
            spine[i:i+1] = items

    def create_guide_element(self):
        e = etree.SubElement(self.root, '{%s}guide'%self.NAMESPACES['opf'])
        e.text = '\n        '
        e.tail =  '\n'
        return e

    def remove_guide(self):
        self.guide = None
        for g in self.root.xpath('./*[re:match(name(), "guide", "i")]', namespaces={'re':'http://exslt.org/regular-expressions'}):

    def create_guide_item(self, type, title, href):
        e = etree.Element('{%s}reference'%self.NAMESPACES['opf'],
                             type=type, title=title, href=href)
        return e

    def add_guide_item(self, type, title, href):
        g = self.root.xpath('./*[re:match(name(), "guide", "i")]', namespaces={'re':'http://exslt.org/regular-expressions'})[0]
        g.append(self.create_guide_item(type, title, href))

    def iterguide(self):
        return self.guide_path(self.root)

    def unquote_urls(self):
        def get_href(item):
            raw = unquote(item.get('href', ''))
            if not isinstance(raw, unicode):
                raw = raw.decode('utf-8')
            return raw
        for item in self.itermanifest():
            item.set('href', get_href(item))
        for item in self.iterguide():
            item.set('href', get_href(item))

    def authors(self):

        def fget(self):
            ans = []
            for elem in self.authors_path(self.metadata):
            return ans

        def fset(self, val):
            remove = list(self.authors_path(self.metadata))
            for elem in remove:
            for author in val:
                attrib = {'{%s}role'%self.NAMESPACES['opf']: 'aut'}
                elem = self.create_metadata_element('creator', attrib=attrib)
                self.set_text(elem, author.strip())

        return property(fget=fget, fset=fset)

    def author_sort(self):

        def fget(self):
            matches = self.authors_path(self.metadata)
            if matches:
                for match in matches:
                    ans = match.get('{%s}file-as'%self.NAMESPACES['opf'], None)
                    if not ans:
                        ans = match.get('file-as', None)
                    if ans:
                        return ans

        def fset(self, val):
            matches = self.authors_path(self.metadata)
            if matches:
                for key in matches[0].attrib:
                    if key.endswith('file-as'):
                matches[0].set('{%s}file-as'%self.NAMESPACES['opf'], unicode(val))

        return property(fget=fget, fset=fset)

    def tags(self):

        def fget(self):
            ans = []
            for tag in self.tags_path(self.metadata):
            return ans

        def fset(self, val):
            for tag in list(self.tags_path(self.metadata)):
            for tag in val:
                elem = self.create_metadata_element('subject')
                self.set_text(elem, unicode(tag))

        return property(fget=fget, fset=fset)

    def isbn(self):

        def fget(self):
            for match in self.isbn_path(self.metadata):
                return self.get_text(match) or None

        def fset(self, val):
            matches = self.isbn_path(self.metadata)
            if val is None:
                if matches:
                    for x in matches:
            if not matches:
                attrib = {'{%s}scheme'%self.NAMESPACES['opf']: 'ISBN'}
                matches = [self.create_metadata_element('identifier',
            self.set_text(matches[0], unicode(val))

        return property(fget=fget, fset=fset)

    def application_id(self):

        def fget(self):
            for match in self.application_id_path(self.metadata):
                return self.get_text(match) or None

        def fset(self, val):
            matches = self.application_id_path(self.metadata)
            if not matches:
                attrib = {'{%s}scheme'%self.NAMESPACES['opf']: 'calibre'}
                matches = [self.create_metadata_element('identifier',
            self.set_text(matches[0], unicode(val))

        return property(fget=fget, fset=fset)

    def uuid(self):

        def fget(self):
            for match in self.uuid_id_path(self.metadata):
                return self.get_text(match) or None

        def fset(self, val):
            matches = self.uuid_id_path(self.metadata)
            if not matches:
                attrib = {'{%s}scheme'%self.NAMESPACES['opf']: 'uuid'}
                matches = [self.create_metadata_element('identifier',
            self.set_text(matches[0], unicode(val))

        return property(fget=fget, fset=fset)

    def book_producer(self):

        def fget(self):
            for match in self.bkp_path(self.metadata):
                return self.get_text(match) or None

        def fset(self, val):
            matches = self.bkp_path(self.metadata)
            if not matches:
                attrib = {'{%s}role'%self.NAMESPACES['opf']: 'bkp'}
                matches = [self.create_metadata_element('contributor',
            self.set_text(matches[0], unicode(val))
        return property(fget=fget, fset=fset)

    def identifier_iter(self):
        for item in self.identifier_path(self.metadata):
            yield item

    def guess_cover(self):
        Try to guess a cover. Needed for some old/badly formed OPF files.
        if self.base_dir and os.path.exists(self.base_dir):
            for item in self.identifier_path(self.metadata):
                scheme = None
                for key in item.attrib.keys():
                    if key.endswith('scheme'):
                        scheme = item.get(key)
                if scheme is None:
                if item.text:
                    prefix = item.text.replace('-', '')
                    for suffix in ['.jpg', '.jpeg', '.gif', '.png', '.bmp']:
                        cpath = os.access(os.path.join(self.base_dir, prefix+suffix), os.R_OK)
                        if os.access(os.path.join(self.base_dir, prefix+suffix), os.R_OK):
                            return cpath

    def raster_cover(self):
        covers = self.raster_cover_path(self.metadata)
        if covers:
            cover_id = covers[0].get('content')
            for item in self.itermanifest():
                if item.get('id', None) == cover_id:
                    return item.get('href', None)

    def cover(self):

        def fget(self):
            if self.guide is not None:
                for t in ('cover', 'other.ms-coverimage-standard', 'other.ms-coverimage'):
                    for item in self.guide:
                        if item.type.lower() == t:
                            return item.path
                return self.guess_cover()

        def fset(self, path):
            if self.guide is not None:
                for item in list(self.iterguide()):
                    if 'cover' in item.get('type', ''):

                g = self.create_guide_element()
                self.guide = Guide()
                etree.SubElement(g, 'opf:reference', nsmap=self.NAMESPACES,
                                 attrib={'type':'cover', 'href':self.guide[-1].href()})
            id = self.manifest.id_for_path(self.cover)
            if id is None:
                for t in ('cover', 'other.ms-coverimage-standard', 'other.ms-coverimage'):
                    for item in self.guide:
                        if item.type.lower() == t:
                            self.create_manifest_item(item.href(), mimetypes.guess_type(path)[0])

        return property(fget=fget, fset=fset)

    def get_metadata_element(self, name):
        matches = self.metadata_elem_path(self.metadata, name=name)
        if matches:
            return matches[-1]

    def create_metadata_element(self, name, attrib=None, is_dc=True):
        if is_dc:
            name = '{%s}%s' % (self.NAMESPACES['dc'], name)
            attrib = attrib or {}
            attrib['name'] = 'calibre:' + name
            name = '{%s}%s' % (self.NAMESPACES['opf'], 'meta')
        elem = etree.SubElement(self.metadata, name, attrib=attrib,
        elem.tail = '\n'
        return elem

    def render(self, encoding='utf-8'):
        raw = etree.tostring(self.root, encoding=encoding, pretty_print=True)
        if not raw.lstrip().startswith('<?xml '):
            raw = '<?xml version="1.0"  encoding="%s"?>\n'%encoding.upper()+raw
        return raw

    def smart_update(self, mi):
        for attr in ('title', 'authors', 'author_sort', 'title_sort',
                     'publisher', 'series', 'series_index', 'rating',
                     'isbn', 'language', 'tags', 'category', 'comments',
            val = getattr(mi, attr, None)
            if val is not None and val != [] and val != (None, None):
                setattr(self, attr, val)

class OPFCreator(MetaInformation):

    def __init__(self, base_path, *args, **kwargs):
        @param base_path: An absolute path to the directory in which this OPF file
        will eventually be. This is used by the L{create_manifest} method
        to convert paths to files into relative paths.
        MetaInformation.__init__(self, *args, **kwargs)
        self.base_path = os.path.abspath(base_path)
        if self.application_id is None:
            self.application_id = str(uuid.uuid4())
        if not isinstance(self.toc, TOC):
            self.toc = None
        if not self.authors:
            self.authors = [_('Unknown')]
        if self.guide is None:
            self.guide = Guide()
        if self.cover:

    def create_manifest(self, entries):
        Create <manifest>

        `entries`: List of (path, mime-type) If mime-type is None it is autodetected
        entries = map(lambda x: x if os.path.isabs(x[0]) else
                      (os.path.abspath(os.path.join(self.base_path, x[0])), x[1]),
        self.manifest = Manifest.from_paths(entries)

    def create_manifest_from_files_in(self, files_and_dirs):
        entries = []

        def dodir(dir):
            for spec in os.walk(dir):
                root, files = spec[0], spec[-1]
                for name in files:
                    path = os.path.join(root, name)
                    if os.path.isfile(path):
                        entries.append((path, None))

        for i in files_and_dirs:
            if os.path.isdir(i):
                entries.append((i, None))


    def create_spine(self, entries):
        Create the <spine> element. Must first call :method:`create_manifest`.

        `entries`: List of paths
        entries = map(lambda x: x if os.path.isabs(x) else
                      os.path.abspath(os.path.join(self.base_path, x)), entries)
        self.spine = Spine.from_paths(entries, self.manifest)

    def set_toc(self, toc):
        Set the toc. You must call :method:`create_spine` before calling this

        :param toc: A :class:`TOC` object
        self.toc = toc

    def create_guide(self, guide_element):
        self.guide = Guide.from_opf_guide(guide_element, self.base_path)

    def render(self, opf_stream=sys.stdout, ncx_stream=None,
               ncx_manifest_entry=None, encoding=None):
        from calibre.utils.genshi.template import MarkupTemplate
        opf_template = open(P('templates/opf.xml'), 'rb').read()
        if encoding is None:
            encoding = 'utf-8'
        template = MarkupTemplate(opf_template)
        toc = getattr(self, 'toc', None)
        if self.manifest:
            if ncx_manifest_entry is not None and toc is not None:
                if not os.path.isabs(ncx_manifest_entry):
                    ncx_manifest_entry = os.path.join(self.base_path, ncx_manifest_entry)
                remove = [i for i in self.manifest if i.id == 'ncx']
                for item in remove:
                self.manifest.append(ManifestItem(ncx_manifest_entry, self.base_path))
                self.manifest[-1].id = 'ncx'
                self.manifest[-1].mime_type = 'application/x-dtbncx+xml'
        if self.guide is None:
            self.guide = Guide()
        if self.cover:
            cover = self.cover
            if not os.path.isabs(cover):
                cover = os.path.abspath(os.path.join(self.base_path, cover))
        opf = template.generate(
                __appname__=__appname__, mi=self,
                __version__=__version__).render('xml', encoding=encoding)
        opf_stream.write('<?xml version="1.0" encoding="%s" ?>\n'
        if toc is not None and ncx_stream is not None:
            toc.render(ncx_stream, self.application_id)

def metadata_to_opf(mi, as_string=True):
    from lxml import etree
    import textwrap
    from calibre.ebooks.oeb.base import OPF, DC

    if not mi.application_id:
        mi.application_id = str(uuid.uuid4())

    if not mi.uuid:
        mi.uuid = str(uuid.uuid4())

    if not mi.book_producer:
        mi.book_producer = __appname__ + ' (%s) '%__version__ + \

    if not mi.language:
        mi.language = 'UND'

    root = etree.fromstring(textwrap.dedent(
    <package xmlns="http://www.idpf.org/2007/opf" unique-identifier="uuid_id">
        <metadata xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:opf="http://www.idpf.org/2007/opf">
            <dc:identifier opf:scheme="%(a)s" id="%(a)s_id">%(id)s</dc:identifier>
            <dc:identifier opf:scheme="uuid" id="uuid_id">%(uuid)s</dc:identifier>
    '''%dict(a=__appname__, id=mi.application_id, uuid=mi.uuid)))
    metadata = root[0]
    guide = root[1]
    metadata[0].tail = '\n'+(' '*8)
    def factory(tag, text=None, sort=None, role=None, scheme=None, name=None,
        attrib = {}
        if sort:
            attrib[OPF('file-as')] = sort
        if role:
            attrib[OPF('role')] = role
        if scheme:
            attrib[OPF('scheme')] = scheme
        if name:
            attrib['name'] = name
        if content:
            attrib['content'] = content
        elem = metadata.makeelement(tag, attrib=attrib)
        elem.tail = '\n'+(' '*8)
        if text:
            elem.text = text.strip()

    factory(DC('title'), mi.title)
    for au in mi.authors:
        factory(DC('creator'), au, mi.author_sort, 'aut')
    factory(DC('contributor'), mi.book_producer, __appname__, 'bkp')
    if hasattr(mi.pubdate, 'isoformat'):
        factory(DC('date'), isoformat(mi.pubdate))
    factory(DC('language'), mi.language)
    if mi.category:
        factory(DC('type'), mi.category)
    if mi.comments:
        factory(DC('description'), mi.comments)
    if mi.publisher:
        factory(DC('publisher'), mi.publisher)
    if mi.isbn:
        factory(DC('identifier'), mi.isbn, scheme='ISBN')
    if mi.rights:
        factory(DC('rights'), mi.rights)
    if mi.tags:
        for tag in mi.tags:
            factory(DC('subject'), tag)
    meta = lambda n, c: factory('meta', name='calibre:'+n, content=c)
    if mi.series:
        meta('series', mi.series)
    if mi.series_index is not None:
        meta('series_index', mi.format_series_index())
    if mi.rating is not None:
        meta('rating', str(mi.rating))
    if hasattr(mi.timestamp, 'isoformat'):
        meta('timestamp', isoformat(mi.timestamp))
    if mi.publication_type:
        meta('publication_type', mi.publication_type)
    if mi.title_sort:
        meta('title_sort', mi.title_sort)

    metadata[-1].tail = '\n' +(' '*4)

    if mi.cover:
        if not isinstance(mi.cover, unicode):
            mi.cover = mi.cover.decode(filesystem_encoding)
        guide.text = '\n'+(' '*8)
        r = guide.makeelement(OPF('reference'),
                attrib={'type':'cover', 'title':_('Cover'), 'href':mi.cover})
        r.tail = '\n' +(' '*4)
    return etree.tostring(root, pretty_print=True, encoding='utf-8',
            xml_declaration=True) if as_string else root

def test_m2o():
    from calibre.utils.date import now as nowf
    from cStringIO import StringIO
    mi = MetaInformation('test & title', ['a"1', "a'2"])
    mi.title_sort = 'a\'"b'
    mi.author_sort = 'author sort'
    mi.pubdate = nowf()
    mi.language = 'en'
    mi.category = 'test'
    mi.comments = 'what a fun book\n\n'
    mi.publisher = 'publisher'
    mi.isbn = 'boooo'
    mi.tags = ['a', 'b']
    mi.series = 's"c\'l&<>'
    mi.series_index = 3.34
    mi.rating = 3
    mi.timestamp = nowf()
    mi.publication_type = 'ooooo'
    mi.rights = 'yes'
    mi.cover = 'asd.jpg'
    opf = metadata_to_opf(mi)
    print opf
    newmi = MetaInformation(OPF(StringIO(opf)))
    for attr in ('author_sort', 'title_sort', 'comments', 'category',
                    'publisher', 'series', 'series_index', 'rating',
                    'isbn', 'tags', 'cover_data', 'application_id',
                    'language', 'cover',
                    'book_producer', 'timestamp', 'lccn', 'lcc', 'ddc',
                    'pubdate', 'rights', 'publication_type'):
        o, n = getattr(mi, attr), getattr(newmi, attr)
        if o != n and o.strip() != n.strip():
            print 'FAILED:', attr, getattr(mi, attr), '!=', getattr(newmi, attr)

class OPFTest(unittest.TestCase):

    def setUp(self):
        self.stream = cStringIO.StringIO(
<?xml version="1.0"  encoding="UTF-8"?>
<package version="2.0" xmlns="http://www.idpf.org/2007/opf" >
<metadata xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:opf="http://www.idpf.org/2007/opf">
    <dc:title opf:file-as="Wow">A Cool &amp; &copy; &#223; Title</dc:title>
    <creator opf:role="aut" file-as="Monkey">Monkey Kitchen, Next</creator>
    <dc:identifier scheme="ISBN">123456789</dc:identifier>
        <series>A one book series</series>
    <item id="1" href="a%20%7E%20b" media-type="text/txt" />
        self.opf = OPF(self.stream, os.getcwd())

    def testReading(self, opf=None):
        if opf is None:
            opf = self.opf
        self.assertEqual(opf.title, u'A Cool & \xa9 \xdf Title')
        self.assertEqual(opf.authors, u'Monkey Kitchen,Next'.split(','))
        self.assertEqual(opf.author_sort, 'Monkey')
        self.assertEqual(opf.title_sort, 'Wow')
        self.assertEqual(opf.tags, ['One', 'Two'])
        self.assertEqual(opf.isbn, '123456789')
        self.assertEqual(opf.series, 'A one book series')
        self.assertEqual(opf.series_index, 1)
        self.assertEqual(list(opf.itermanifest())[0].get('href'), 'a ~ b')

    def testWriting(self):
        for test in [('title', 'New & Title'), ('authors', ['One', 'Two']),
                     ('author_sort', "Kitchen"), ('tags', ['Three']),
                     ('isbn', 'a'), ('rating', 3), ('series_index', 1),
                     ('title_sort', 'ts')]:
            setattr(self.opf, *test)
            attr, val = test
            self.assertEqual(getattr(self.opf, attr), val)


    def testCreator(self):
        opf = OPFCreator(os.getcwd(), self.opf)
        buf = cStringIO.StringIO()
        raw = buf.getvalue()
        self.testReading(opf=OPF(cStringIO.StringIO(raw), os.getcwd()))

    def testSmartUpdate(self):

def suite():
    return unittest.TestLoader().loadTestsFromTestCase(OPFTest)

def test():

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